How to Make Whole Bean Coffee

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Making Great Whole Bean Coffee

Coffee experts insist whole bean coffee is the way to go. But what’s the difference between buying whole bean and pre-ground—and does it really matter if you’re not a coffee snob? We’re here to answer those questions for you! 

Read on to learn why whole bean is better, and whether grinding at home is something that will fit into your life.

What Is Whole Bean Coffee?

There is a lot that has to happen to a coffee bean between picking and brewing. First it’s processed, removing the coffee cherry from the inner seed we call a coffee bean. Once these seeds are cleaned and dried, they’re known as “green coffee beans,” and are sent elsewhere to be roasted.

Whole bean coffee is what comes out of the roaster. The roasted beans are packaged and shipped to coffee shops and customers. At this point, they’re almost ready to be brewed—you’ll just need to grind them, and that’s something it’s easy to do at home.

Whole Bean vs. Ground Coffee

The biggest difference between whole bean and ground coffee is the amount of surface area exposed to oxygen. In whole-bean form, only the outer surface has contact with the air. Most of the flavor components are protected within the bean. 

This is especially important for the volatile compounds that give coffee its distinctive aroma. Many of these aromatic compounds will begin to dissipate solely through contact with oxygen, even before they come into contact with hot water.

Once you grind the coffee, the surface area expands significantly—the finer the grind, the more surface area you have. This is great for brewing, giving the water more places to extract all those delicious flavor components. 

When the coffee is in storage, though, it allows oxygen to interact with these aromatics instead. This is known as oxidation, and is one of the most significant factors that makes coffee taste stale.

Why Use Whole Beans?

The main reason to buy whole bean coffee is that you can keep it tasting fresher for longer. Stored correctly, whole bean coffee can last for a year or more before it starts to taste stale (though it has its best flavor when brewed within the first month of roasting). Once the coffee is ground, you only have 2-3 months to use it before staleness sets in.

Even aside from this long-term freshness, grinding the beans immediately before you brew will give you a better-tasting cup. Part of what happens during roasting is that carbon dioxide (CO2) is trapped inside the bean. Once the coffee is ground, this gas is released. Combined with the oxidation described above, this leads to most of the aromatics of the coffee bean dissipating within 15 minutes of grinding.

Understanding Coffee Bean Origin

You’ll hear the term “single-origin” attached to most craft coffees. That means that all of the beans are from the same region (and usually the same farm) rather than a blend of different beans from different regions.

There’s nothing inherently wrong with a blend. The main advantage of choosing single-origin coffee is that it lets you choose the specific flavor notes you’re looking for.

Even within regions, there are plenty of flavor variations. Generally speaking, though, African coffee has the most pronounced fruity and floral notes. American coffee tends to be smoother and has chocolatey and nutty notes. Coffee from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea can be sour, earthy, fruity, or smoky, depending on how it was grown and processed.

Elevation is the biggest piece of this puzzle. Higher altitude means a cooler growing environment, and that slows the maturation of the coffee cherries. This results in a denser bean with more complex flavors. The best coffee tends to come from growing regions 4,000 feet above sea level or higher.

Benefits of Purchasing Whole Bean Coffee

  • Freshness. We mentioned it already, but it bears repeating: whole beans are the way to go if you want your coffee to have the best possible taste and a good, strong aroma.
  • You can adjust the grind. Most ground coffee you find in the store is meant to be brewed in a drip machine. It will be too fine for French press or cold brew, and too coarse for espresso. You can get a custom grind at a coffee shop, but even then you’re locked into one grind size for the whole bag. Those who like using a variety of brewing methods will definitely want to grind their own at home.
  • You’ll get better coffee. The companies selling pre-ground coffee in the supermarket assume their customers care more about convenience than taste. The roast level is usually marked on the package, but you’re not likely to know the origin or even the species. Pre-packaged and pre-ground craft coffee does exist, but most of what you’ll find in a supermarket is of a lower-quality, even aside from the flavor loss from grinding.

Is Grinding Your Own Beans a Better Option?

If you want your coffee to have the best possible taste, then yes, absolutely. Not only do your beans stay fresher, but you can adjust the fineness of the grind to suit the bean and brewing method.

The only advantage of pre-ground coffee is convenience. You’ll need to have a grinder at home if you want to use whole bean coffee. It also does add an extra step to the brewing process. 

Grinding coffee beans doesn’t take long, especially if you have a quality burr grinder, but you will still need to clean and maintain your grinder, just like you do with your coffee maker. Not everyone wants that extra hassle.

Do You Have Enough Time to Make Coffee?

If you’re the kind of person who’s always running out the door five minutes late, you’re probably thinking you don’t have time to grind your own beans. Having said that, you might change your mind once you realize how quick the process is.

Brewing coffee takes less than 10 minutes with all hot methods. Exactly how long depends on the specifics. Espresso is the fastest (20-30 seconds), followed by AeroPress and pour-over (2-3 minutes), then drip and French press (4-6 minutes).

With an electric grinder, it takes 30 seconds or less to grind enough coffee for your morning brew (hand grinders are slower but if you’re the type of person who counts their time down the second, it’s doubtful you’ve gone that route in the first place).

So while pre-ground coffee is more convenient, it doesn’t really shave that much time off of the process. In fact, it locks you into using a longer brewing process, since most pre-ground coffee is sized for drip brewers. 

How To Brew Great Coffee Without a Coffee Maker

All you need to brew coffee is hot water (or cold water and a lot of time). The different brewing methods you’ll see out there are just ways to bring out specific flavor profiles and strengths from the bean.

If you don’t have a coffee maker, or if your usual machine is out of commission, you’re not completely out of luck. Here are some hacks that let you brew a great cup—no specialized equipment required.

1) Make Cowboy Coffee

Cowboy coffee is as simple as it comes. Just throw some water and ground coffee together in a pot, add heat, and let the magic happen. There are a few approaches to this brewing method, but we’ve outlined the simplest below.

What you’ll need:

  • Heating element (stovetop, fire, etc.)
  • Medium pot
  • Fine-ground coffee

How to make it:

  1. Bring a pot of water to a boil.
  2. Remove the pot from the heat and let it sit about 30 seconds.
  3. Add the coffee. A good amount is about 2 tablespoons per every 8 ounces of water, though you can adjust this to your tastes.
  4. Stir the grounds in then allow it to steep together for 2 minutes. Give it another stir, and let it sit 2 more minutes (for a total brew time of 4 minutes).
  5. Wet your hand with cold water, then flick the water over the surface of the coffee to settle the grounds.

2) Turn a Thermos Into a French Press

The only difference between a French press and a thermos is the inclusion of the filter to keep the grounds out of your cup. Instead of pressing the grounds down, you can just filter them out before serving to get the same effect.

What you’ll need:

  • Thermos or container for steeping
  • Metal strainer
  • Coarse-ground coffee

How to make it: 

  1. Heat water to boiling and allow to sit for 30 seconds to reach the right temperature.
  2. Put 3 tablespoons of coffee into the steeping container for every 8 ounces of water.
  3. Pour the water in over the grounds and allow it to steep for 4 minutes. You can stir the mix at about the 2-minute mark to speed the extraction.
  4. Pour the resulting brew through a strainer into a mug or carafe for serving.

3) Cold Brew It

This method does take a bit longer, but you’ll get delicious coffee—and you don’t even need heat. Making a cold brewer from common household items is very easy, too.

What you’ll need:

  • Coffee filters
  • Twine or rubber bands
  • Plastic container for steeping
  • Coarse-ground coffee

How to make it:

  1. Put the ground coffee into the filter. You’ll want 3 tablespoons of coffee for every 8 ounces of water. If you’re making a large batch, you may want to break this up into 2 or 3 filters.
  2. Gather the edges of the filter together and secure them with twine or a rubber band so that the grinds can’t escape into the brew.
  3. Pour the water into the container and add the filter(s). Once the filter is wet, massage it gently to break up any clumps and ensure even extraction.
  4. Allow to steep for about 16-18 hours, then remove the filters.
  5. The resulting brew is a concentrate and stays good for up to 2 weeks in the fridge. If you want a drink more similar to drip coffee, put some concentrate in your mug and dilute it with hot water until you have your desired strength.

Coffee Buying Tips

  • Verify the roasting date. If you’re buying beans from a roaster or café, the barista should know about when the beans were roasted (and this information is often marked directly on the bean bin or bag). Double-check the roasting date if you’re buying pre-packaged beans in the store, though. Be wary if you can’t find a roasting date. Even vacuum-sealed, coffee beans don’t stay fresh forever.

  •  Go straight to the roaster. The supermarket is not the best place to get great coffee. If you want the best flavor, visit a local coffee shop or roaster and buy the beans straight from them. Many roasters also sell beans on their websites if you don’t have time for a special trip (or don’t have a roaster in your area). Cafes can also grind your coffee for you if you don’t want it whole bean.

  • Choose the light or medium roast. Some people like the smoky, bitter taste of dark-roasted coffee, but most people will like the taste of a lighter roast better. A lot of the more complex flavor notes are lost once beans reach their dark-roasted stage—and roasters know this. They may use lower-quality beans for their dark roasts rather than waste the good stuff (since you won’t taste much of its best parts, anyway). As an added benefit, a light roast has more caffeine per scoop than a dark roast, so it’ll give you a better kick.

How to Store Whole Bean Coffee

Air is the enemy of fresh coffee. The best way to store your beans is in an airtight canister with a gasket seal. Metal, glass, and ceramic containers are best. Plastic is more likely to absorb flavors and may allow some air to seep in.

Where you keep your canister is important, too. Avoid having it in direct sunlight, which can also contribute to staleness. The best place to keep it is in a cool, dry cabinet, or a darker area of your counter.

How Long Does Whole Bean Coffee Last?

Whole bean coffee will retain its maximum freshness and flavor for about 4-6 weeks after roasting. Ideally, you’ll want to brew the coffee within this span.

If you’re asking how long you can keep coffee before it’s no longer safe to drink, the answer is more variable. Stored properly, whole coffee beans can last for 1-2 years before the oils turn rancid, and even longer if they’re in the freezer. 

You will notice a gradual flavor loss the longer they’re in storage, though. A 2-year-old coffee bean probably won’t hurt you, but it might not taste very good, either.

Summary and Conclusion

Grinding your own beans is a lot easier and faster than you may realize, and is by far the best way to get the best-tasting brew. A home coffee grinder is one of the best investments you can make if you’re looking to get the most flavor out of your coffee beans.

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